The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) monitoring system has been downgraded to “Neutral” status this month. While warmer sea-surface temperature (SSTs) remain over the Nino3.4 Region, they have cooled over the past three months and remained in the neutral range. Atmospheric indicators of ENSO, generally, have also remained neutral. The Nino3.4 index was 0.50°C for May 2019 and 0.59°C for March-May 2019 three-month average.
Overall, signs of future El Niño development continue to weaken. Model outlooks from international centres are generally predicting Nino3.4 SST anomalies to continue cooling until around September 2019. Beyond September, however, the model outlooks are uncertain showing a wide spread of possible outcomes ranging from weak La Niña to moderate El Niño. Another key driver that will influence rainfall over Singapore and the nearby region in the next few months is the Indian Ocean sea-surface temperature anomalies. Currently an Indian Ocean-related index monitored, called the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), is showing positive values and this is expected to persist in the 3rd quarter of 2019. A positive IOD can lead to below-normal rainfall conditions over Singapore and the nearby region.
Further Information on ENSO
ENSO conditions are monitored by analysing Pacific sea surface temperatures (SSTs), low level winds, cloudiness (using outgoing longwave radiation), and sub-surface temperatures. Special attention is given to SSTs, as they are one of the key indicators used to monitor ENSO. Here, three different datasets are used: HadISST, ERSSTv5, and COBE datasets. As globally, SSTs have gradually warmed over the last century under the influence of climate change, the SST values over the Nino3.4 will increasingly be magnified with time, and hence appear warmer than they should be. Therefore, this background trend is removed from the SST datasets (Turkington, Timbal, & Rahmat, 2018), before calculating SST anomalies using the climatology period 1976-2014. So far, there has been no noticeable background trend in the low-level winds or cloudiness.
El Niño (La Niña) conditions are associated with warmer (colder) SSTs in the central and eastern Pacific. The threshold for an El Niño (La Niña) in the Nino3.4 region is above 0.65°C (below -0.65°C). El Niño (La Niña) conditions also correspond to an increase (decrease) in cloudiness around or to the east of the international dateline (180°), with a decrease (increase) in cloudiness in the west. There is also a decrease (increase) in the trade winds in the eastern Pacific. Sub-surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific should also be warmer (colder) than average, to sustain the El Niño (La Niña) conditions.
For ENSO outlooks, information from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and international climate centres are assessed. The centres include the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) USA, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) Australia, as well as information from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) which consolidates model outputs from other centres around the world. Each centre uses different criteria, including different SST thresholds. Therefore, variations between centres on the current ENSO state should be expected, especially when conditions are borderline.
The SSTs over the central and eastern Pacific were still warmer than average in May 2019 (Figure 1). The warmer temperatures over the Nino3.4 Region (black box) however are within neutral and have weakened over the past few months. However, the western Indian Ocean SST is warmer than average, while the eastern Indian Ocean SST is colder than average. The difference in SST anomalies between the western and eastern Indian Ocean is monitored through the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) index. When the IOD is positive, as is the case now, below-normal rainfall conditions are favoured over the southern and eastern Maritime Continent.
Figure 1: Detrended SST anomalies for May 2019 with respect to 1976-2014 climatology using ERSST v5 data. Warm shades show regions of relative warming, while cool shades show regions of relative cooling. The tropical Pacific Ocean Nino3.4 Region is outlined in black.
Looking at the Nino3.4 index over the past year (Figure 2), after the 2017-2018 La Niña, the 1-month Nino3.4 value continued warming. It reached its peak in November 2018 after having crossed the El Niño threshold (0.65°C) for 2 months (October and November 2018). Subsequently, the Nino3.4 value fluctuated around the threshold until April 2019, when it started to weaken. For El Niño conditions to be present, 1-month warm SST anomalies (observed or forecast) should persist for at least four months above the threshold, with at least one of the months observed along supporting atmospheric observations.
Figure 2: The Nino3.4 index using the 1-month SST anomalies. Warm anomalies (≥ +0.65; brown) correspond to El Niño conditions while cold anomalies (≤ -0.65; blue) correspond to La Niña conditions; otherwise neutral (> -0.65 and < +0.65; grey).
Model outlooks from Copernicus C3S (Figure 3) until July 2019 are still going for Nino3.4 SST to be just above the El Niño threshold on average. Beyond July, however, the outlooks show a wide spread of possible outcomes ranging from weak La Niña to moderate El Niño.
Figure 3: Forecasts of Nino3.4 index’s strength for 2019 from various seasonal prediction models of international climate centres (image credit: Copernicus C3S).
Historical ENSO Variability
To classify a historical El Niño event, the 3-month average Nino3.4 value must be above 0.65°C for 5 or more consecutive months. For La Niña events, the threshold is -0.65°C. Otherwise it is considered neutral. ENSO events with a peak value above 1.5°C (El Niño) or below -1.5°C (La Niña) are considered strong. Otherwise, the events are considered weak to moderate in strength. The following figure (Figure 4) shows the development of the Nino3.4 index in 2015-18 in comparison to other El Niño/La Niña events.
Figure 4: Three-month Nino3.4 index development and retreat of different El Niño (left)/La Niña (right) events since the 1960s. The most recent El Niño and La Niña events are in red and purple, respectively.
Impact of El Niño/La Niña on Southeast Asia
Typically, the impact of El Niño on Southeast Asia is drier-than-average rainfall conditions, especially during the period June and October, and over the Maritime Continent (Figure 5, left, for June-August season in-progress). Warmer temperature conditions typically follow drier periods. The opposite is observed during La Niña years (Figure 5, right).
The impact on the region’s rainfall and temperature from ENSO events is more significantly felt during strong or moderate intensity events. Also, no two El Niño events or two La Niña events are alike in terms of their impact.
Figure 5: June to August rainfall anomaly composites (mm/day) for El Niño (left) and La Niña (right) years. Brown shades show regions of drier conditions while regions in green shades wetter conditions. Note that this anomaly composite was generated using a limited number of El Niño/La Niña occurrences between 1979 and 2017 and therefore should be interpreted with caution (data: NOAA CPC CAMS_OPI).
Turkington, T., Timbal, B., & Rahmat, R. (2018). The impact of global warming on sea surface temperature based El Nino Southern Oscillation monitoring indices. International Journal of Climatology, 39(2).
El Niño/La Niña
For El Niño/La Niña updates, information provided by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and various international climate centres are assessed. The centres include the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) USA, the Bureau of Meteorology (BoM) Australia, as well as information from the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI) which consolidates model outputs from various other centres around the world.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is El Niño/La Niña and how do they affect weather in South East Asia?
The El Niño phenomenon is a non-regular occurrence in the tropical pacific region where warmer waters develop over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean along the coast of South America. In South East Asia, this brings drier weather and increases the risk of forest fires and smoke haze. The La Niña phenomenon is the reverse of the El Niño where cooler waters develop over the Eastern Tropical Pacific Ocean along the coast of South America.
In South East Asia, higher than normal rainfall tends to occur during a La Niña episode which may result in an increased occurrence of floods.
The correlation between El Niño/La Niña and its associated weather impacts on South East Asia differ from one place to another and for different seasons.
The image above shows the precipitation anomalies averaged over the El Niño and La Niña years. For instance, the impact of El Niño is typically stronger over the southern and eastern part of South East Asia during the months of Jun – Oct.